Nine kinds of mining essential machinery and equipment

Mining machinery is directly used for mineral extraction and rich selection and other operations. Including mining machinery and mineral processing machinery. The working principle and structure of prospecting machinery and mining similar minerals used in mining machinery mostly the same or similar, in a broad sense, prospecting machinery also belongs to the mining machinery.

In addition, mining operations also apply a large number of cranes, conveyors, ventilators and drainage machinery.

Classification of mining machinery

1、Crushing equipment

Crushing equipment is the machinery and equipment used to crush minerals.

Crushing operations are often divided into coarse crushing, medium crushing and fine crushing according to the size of the feed and discharge size. Commonly used sand and gravel equipment include jaw crusher, impact crusher, impact crusher, compound crusher, single-section hammer crusher, vertical crusher, gyratory crusher, cone crusher, roll crusher, double-roll crusher, two-in-one crusher, one-shot crusher and several others.

According to the crushing method, the construction characteristics of the machinery (action principle) to divide, roughly divided into six categories.

(1) Jaw crusher (tiger mouth). The crushing action relies on the movable jaw plate to periodically press against the fixed jaw plate to crush the ore pieces caught in it.

(2)Cone crusher. The ore block is between the inner and outer cones, the outer cone is fixed and the inner cone swings eccentrically to crush or break the ore block caught in it.

(3) Roll Crusher. The ore block is sandwiched between two rotating rolls, mainly subject to continuous crushing, but also with grinding and stripping, and the tooth-shaped roll surface has a splitting effect.

(4) Impact crusher. The ore block is crushed by the impact of the rapidly rotating moving parts. This category can be divided into: hammer crushers; cage crushers; impact crushers.

(5) Mill. The ore is crushed by the impact and grinding action of the grinding media (steel balls, rods, gravel or ore blocks) in a rotating cylinder.

(6) Other types of crushing and grinding machines.

2、Mining machinery

Mining machinery is the direct mining of useful minerals and quasi-work used mechanical equipment, including: mining metal ores and non-metallic ore mining machinery; mining coal mining machinery; mining oil with oil drilling machinery. The first wind-driven circular coal mining machine was designed by British engineer Walker, about 1868 manufacturing success. 1880s, the United States has hundreds of oil wells with steam-powered percussion drilling success, in 1907, and drilling oil and gas wells with a tooth wheel drilling machine, and from 1937, it will be used for open pit drilling.

3、Extracting machinery

Extraction machinery for underground and open-pit mining mining machinery are: drilling holes with the drilling machinery; digging and loading machinery for mining rock; drilling shafts, shafts and alleys with the boring machinery.

4、Drilling machinery

Drilling machinery is divided into two categories of rock drills and drilling rigs, drilling rigs and open-air drilling rigs and underground drilling rigs.

(1) rock drill: used to drill holes with a diameter of 20~100mm and a depth of 20 meters or less in the rock above medium-hard. According to its power can be divided into wind, internal combustion, hydraulic and electric rock drills, of which wind rock drills are most widely used.

(2) Open-air drilling rigs: According to the different working mechanisms for crushing ore rocks, they are divided into steel rope impact drilling rigs, submersible drilling rigs, tooth wheel drilling rigs and rotary drilling rigs. Steel rope impact drilling rig has been gradually replaced by other drilling rigs due to low efficiency.

(3) Underground drilling rig: When drilling underground shell holes with a hole diameter less than 150 mm, in addition to the application of rock drills, small diameter submersible drills of 80~150 mm can also be applied.

5、Digging machinery

The use of axial pressure and rotary force of the tool on the rock surface of the rolling action, directly broken into the mine rock into the road or into the well mechanical equipment. The tools used are disc-shaped hob, wedge tooth hob, ball tooth hob and milling tool. According to the different tunnels, they are divided into shaft drilling machines, vertical drilling machines and flat tunnels.

(1) Patio drilling rig, specially used for drilling patio and shaft, generally does not need to enter the patio to operate, and uses a tooth wheel bit to drill the pilot hole first and ream the hole upward with a reamer composed of disk-shaped hobs.

(2) Vertical drilling rigs are specially used for drilling wells at one time and consist of drilling tool system, rotary device, derrick, drilling tool lifting system and mud circulation system.

(3) Flat road boring machine, which is a comprehensive mechanized equipment combining mechanical rock breaking and slagging processes and continuous digging, mainly used for coal road, engineering tunnels in soft mines and medium hardness of the mine rock in flat road boring.

6、Coal mining machinery

Coal mining operation has been developed from semi-mechanized to comprehensive mechanized. Comprehensive mechanized coal mining is widely used in shallow depth-cutting double (single) drum joint coal mining machine (or coal planer), bendable scraper conveyor and hydraulic self-shifting bracket and other equipment, so that the crushing coal fall, coal loading, transportation, support and other aspects of the return surface to achieve a comprehensive comprehensive mechanization.

Double-drum coal mining machine is coal falling machinery. The electric motor transmits the power to the spiral drum coal drop through the cutting part reducer, and the movement of the machine is realized by the electric motor through the traction part transmission device. There are basically two ways of traction, namely anchor chain traction and no anchor chain traction. Anchor chain traction is realized by the engagement of the sprocket of the traction part with the anchor chain fixed on the conveyor.

7、Oil drilling

Land-based oil drilling machinery. According to the extraction process is divided into drilling machinery, oil recovery machinery, well repair machinery and maintain high production of oil wells fracturing, acidification machinery. Drilling machinery for the development of oil or natural gas and drilling or drilling production wells a full set of mechanical equipment. Oil drilling machine, including derrick, winch, power machine, mud circulation system, skid device system, turntable, wellhead device and electrical control system. The derrick is used for the installation of overhead cranes, traveling skids and large hooks, etc., lifting other heavy objects up and down the drilling platform, and hanging drilling tools in the well for drilling.

8、Mineral processing machinery

Beneficiation is the process of selecting useful minerals in the collected mineral raw materials according to the differences in physical properties, physicochemical properties and chemical properties of various minerals. The implementation of this process is called mineral processing machinery.

Mineral processing machinery according to the beneficiation process is divided into crushing, grinding, screening, sorting (separation) and dewatering machinery. Crushing machinery commonly used are jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, cone crusher, roll crusher and impact crusher.

The most widely used grinding machinery is the cylinder mill, including rod mill, ball mill, gravel mill and ultra-fine laminated self-mill.

Commonly used in screening machinery are inertia vibrating screen and resonance screen. Hydraulic classifier and mechanical classifier are widely used classification machinery in wet classification operation.

Sorting flotation machinery commonly used are full-section air-lift microbubble flotation machines, and dewatering machinery is more famous for multi-frequency dewatering screen tailing dry discharge system.

Crushing and grinding system is more famous is the ultra-fine laminated self-mill.

9、Drying machinery

Coal slurry special dryer is a new type of special drying equipment developed on the basis of the drum dryer, which can be widely used in:

(1)Drying of coal slurry, raw coal, flotation fine coal, mixed fine coal and other materials in coal industry;
(2)Drying of blast furnace slag, clay, pescado, limestone, sand, quartzite and other materials in the construction industry;
(3)Drying of various metal concentrates, waste slag, tailings and other materials in mineral processing industry;
(4)The drying of non-thermal sensitive materials in chemical industry.

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